Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria Produces Tissue Healing Toxins
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Staphylococcus aureus bacteria produces tissue healing toxins.

A bacterial toxin with properties of healing tissue has been discovered. The compound stimulates tissue regeneration and does not just damage cells. It is found in the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.

This bacteria is harmless and usually found in and on the human body. It is as common as one in four people can carry about millions of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract or on their skin, without their knowledge. However, this harmless organism can turn pathogenic in a few cases, leading to inflammation of the skin and lung infection-and in severe cases-lead to sepsis.

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Prof. Oliver Werz, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany, says this harmless bacteria turns to be pathogenic, especially when it tends to multiply too fast, like in the cases when a person has a weak immune system after an infection or an injury.

The Pharmaceutical Chemistry Professor, along with his team, studied the human immune system and its molecular defense mechanism against infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and discovered a surprising compound. The team reported in the journal Cell Reports that the cells and tissue-damaging toxic cocktail from Staphylococcus aureus have positive effects as well. The bacterial toxin stimulates specific immune cells, which in turn produces specialized messenger substances that reduce inflammation and promote healing of tissue. Prof. Werz expects this hitherto unknown mechanism to make a significant contribution to future treatments of inflammation of the skin and to treat chronic wounds.

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Anti-inflammatory messenger substances produced by Immune cells.

In a very recent collaborative study by researchers from the University of Jena, Jena University Hospital, and the Leibniz Institute on Aging- Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI), along with Harvard Medical School and the University of Naples colleagues, studied the bacterial toxin ‘hemolysin’ in particular. The effect of the toxin on M2 macrophages was examined. The immune cells M2 macrophages ensure that the killed bacteria and damaged cellular components are removed in the later stages of inflammatory reactions. M2 macrophages also ensure that the damaged tissue regenerates. Paul Jordan, the lead author on describing M2 macrophages’ functions, commented that M2 macrophages behave like cellular waste disposal.

The study showed the binding of hemolysin to specific receptor proteins on the M2 macrophage surface, which triggers anti-inflammatory messenger substances production in the cells, which reduces the inflammation. The study in an animal model shows that tissue regeneration is promoted by these transmitters. The anti-inflammatory messenger substance comprised of maresins, resolvins, and protectins, formed from omega-3 fatty acids.

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Staphylococcus aureus bacteria produces tissue healing toxins.

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