Genetics to diagnose type-1 diabetes
--Must See--

Bioinformatics Summer Internship 2024 With Hands-On-Training + Project / Dissertation - 30 Days, 3 Months & 6 Months Duration

Genetics could help diagnose type-1 diabetes in Indians     

Scientists at the CSIR-CCMB, Hyderabad, KEM Hospital and Research Centre, Pune, and the University of Exeter, UK have found that a genetic risk score is effective in diagnosing type-1 diabetes in Indians.

The genetic risk score – developed by the University of Exeter, takes into account comprehensive genetic details that are understood to enhance the possibility of developing type-1 diabetes (also called juvenile diabetes). To help decide if a person has type-1 diabetes the genetic risk score may be used at the time of diabetes diagnosis.

Will the European genetic risk score work in detecting type-1 diabetes in Indians?

As the mass of the research study in this area has actually been carried out in the European populace – The above question naturally emerges. Using the genetic risk score the scientists studied people with type-1 diabetes from Pune, India to answer this inquiry. The scientists studied many people all Indian (Indo-European) ancestry – 262 individuals with type-1 diabetes, 352 individuals with type-2 diabetes, and 334 individuals without diabetes. The study results compared well with those in Europeans as exposed in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium Study.

It is extensively

considered that type-1 diabetes is found in children and teenagers, and type-2 diabetes is found in older (typically after 45 years) and obese people. But as per recent findings, in Indians, type-1 diabetes occurs later on in life, while type-2 diabetes is higher amongst thinner and younger individuals. Differentiating the two types of diabetes, has, therefore, come to be a lot more intricate. Different treatment regimens are followed in the 2 types of diabetes, type-1 diabetes requiring lifelong insulin injections but type-2 diabetes typically managed with medicinal therapy or diet. Wrongly classifying the type of diabetes might result in feasible complications and sub-standard diabetes care. This particular research gains importance as it assists in detecting diabetes from its type-1 and type-2 variants appropriately.

The scientists found that the test is effective in diagnosing the correct type of diabetic issues in Indians, based on European information – even in its current form. Additionally, they have found genetic differences between the populations, suggesting that the test could be better improved to boost results for the Indians.  Dr. Richard Oram, of the University of Exeter Medical School, said “As we now know that kind 1 diabetes can occur at any type of age, diagnosing the right diabetes type is significantly a hard challenge for medical professionals. In India, this task is even more difficult as more cases of type 2 diabetes occur in people with low body mass index. It is clear that the genetic risk score is a reliable device for Indians, as well as to avoid life-threatening complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis by helping individuals get on the treatment they need”.

“The escalating epidemic of diabetes in young Indians makes it vital that we detect the type of diabetes appropriately to avoid mistreatment and also it is long term biological, social, and economic effects. The new genetic device will be a great help in this. This will certainly help decide the contribution of failing pancreatic B-cells against the reduced activity of insulin because of excess fat and smaller sized muscular tissue mass in the body of Indians (‘thin-fat Indians’). He also claimed, “We eagerly anticipate utilizing this test in diabetic individuals from different parts of India where the physical attributes of diabetic patients vary from the standard summary”, said Dr. Chittaranjan Yajnik of the KEM Hospital and Research Centre, Pune. The researchers likewise found and can be utilized to anticipate the beginning of type 1 diabetes in Indians.

“It’s thought-provoking to note that different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are much more bountiful among Indian and European individuals. This opens the possibility that environmental variables might be interacting with these SNPs to cause the condition”, said Dr. G R Chandak, Chief Scientist leading the study at CCMB – Referring to the finding that nine genetic areas (called the SNPs) that correlated with type-1 diabetes in both Indian and European populations.

The research study’s results need to be validated in other ethnic groups of the nation also, given the genetic diversity of the population of India. “Developing a genetic test kit to dependably identify type-1 from type-2 diabetes holds a lot of significance for the nation as more than 20% of individuals with type-1 diabetes below the age of 15 years are in India”, said Dr. Rakesh K Mishra, Director of the CSIR-CCMB.

The research on “Genetics could help diagnose type-1 diabetes in Indians” is published in Scientific Reports.

Author: Sruthi S